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Strengthening research capacity in agricultural biotechnology is seen as a necessary and worthwhile investment to efficiently addressing the concerns of farmers and the agribusiness sector. In order to identify the intervention points for building biotechnology capacity, a survey was conducted among the laboratories involved in agricultural biotechnology research. This paper presents the major findings of the survey. The existing institutional capacity in the country, current research activities as well as the available infrastructure, human and financial resources are described. Fourteen laboratories were included in the survey, 12 are in public sector institutions whereas one each is found in an international organisation and the private (non profit) sector. The equipment and infrastructure vary widely, with a substantial number of laboratories considered to be deficient. Due to low staffing, many operate below capacity. Biotechnology research is predominantly funded by international donors. This arises concerns regarding the sustainability of funding and the commitment of the government. Contrary to observations made in other African countries, the available resources in Uganda do not seem to be spread over a too wide range of target crops. But resources may be spread too thinly over the physical infrastructure. There is a much higher percentage of livestock biotechnology research in Uganda than in other commodities.