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Tree spacing, crown and root pruning were investigated on a variety of agro forestry tree species in the Lake Victoria shore region of Uganda with the objective of determining the best management options for improved compatibility with annual crops. Results showed that both Grevillea robusta and casuarina equisetifolia could be intercropped with annual crops at wider intra-row spacings of 3-5 metres without jeopardizing crop production while at the same time enabling the production of marketable poles. Both tree species spaced at 1 m intra-row suppressed grain yield of associated crops after first year. Positive crop responses to crown pruning increased linearly; pollarding encouraging the highest crop yields. In addition to providing household fuel wood; moderate pruning reduced competition for below-ground resources and this increased tree compatibility with annual crops especially during dry conditions. Overall, the management options investigated in this study showed that agro forestry provides significant opportunities in the Plan for Modernization ofAgriculture (PMA) because it offers incentives to farmers to integrate trees into cropland
thereby diversifying the product range and reducing the risk.