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Ecology and conservation status of Acacia senegal in the rangelands of Luwero and Nakasongola Districts were assessed between November 2002 and February 2003. Sixty plots measuring 50 x 50 m were laid at 50 m intervals along six 1,000 m transects, and the Diameter at Breast Height (DBH), of Acacia senegal trees measured. Each tree was visually assessed for physical damages as health indicators. Maturity class, terrain types and other trees growing together with Acacia senegal were identified and recorded. A structured questionnaire and interviews were used to collect data on the constraints and opportunities of conserving and managing Acacia Senegal. Data on the population structure, maturity class and stock density of Acacia senegal were analysed using MINITAB and DECORANA. The population structure of Acacia senegal trees was unbalanced, with only 24% young trees (DBH < 8 cm). Sixty five percent of trees were old (DBH > 8 cm) and 84% physically damaged. Hills had significantly (P < 0.05) higher tree density than plains and streams. Thirty-two tree species were recorded growing together with Acacia senegal in the rangelands and the most common were Acacia mellifera, Acacia hockii, Acacia seyal, Combretum collinum and Combretum molle. Grazing livestock, bush fires, land tenure, tree tenure, pests and diseases were the major challenges to conservation of Acacia senegal in the rangelands. Collaborative conservation and management plan should be developed to conserve the species. Impacts of livestock grazing, settlement and farming on regeneration of Acacia senegal should be assessed before developing strategies for management and conservation.